Razvoj i prostorno planiranje: Dugoratski primjer

tvornička panoramaU Hrvatskoj, kao i u većini tranzicijskih zemalja, postoji dominantno shvaćanje da će samo tržište biti u stanju pokrenuti razvoj općina i gradova. Međutim, tržišna logika jednostavno nije dovoljna za suvislo promišljanje... Definitivno postajemo svjesni vrijednosti prostora kao hrvatskog fundamentalnog resursa, koji ne smijemo potrošiti, ali isto tako moramo biti svjesni nužnosti održivog razvoja, koji će predstaviti sadržaje koji neće biti isključivo monoturistički. Možda je pomalo naivno očekivati da će globalne turističke korporacije zaista rabiti koncept održivog razvoj na našoj obali, ali već i pomalo bizarne vijesti govore o promjeni stanja svijesti. korenat point resortKada imamo situaciju kao što je to slučaj s tvornicom u Dugom Ratu, gdje je lokacija "jednostavno" prodana Landmarku, globalnom financijskom igraču, onda razgovora i dogovora između svih "igrača" u procesu razvoja (investitora, koji zastupa interese tržišta, i lokalne administracije, koja bi trebala zastupati javni interes) - više nema, ili je bar utjecaj civilnog društva i lokalne zajednice bitno smanjen. Zato bi trebalo, gdje je god to moguće, razvijati obalu kroz model javno-privatnog partnerstva (JPP), a ne ju prodavati, gotovo gubeći mogućnost definiranja razvoja osim kroz zastarjele, tradicionalne urbane planove...
Tako je još u svibnju 2008. za Vjesnik govorio arhitekt Vedran Mimica, direktor Instituta Berlage u Nizozemskoj i naše gore list. Otada se u Dugom Ratu malo toga promjenilo, možda jedino vizure kompleksa bivše Tvornice. U nastavku teksta prenosimo u originalu (na engl. jeziku) dio rada "New! Coastal ecologies: Destination Croatia" arhitektice Saše Žanko s istog Nizozemskog arhitektonskog instituta (Berlage) koji se odnosi na ovu našu sredinu, na Dugi Rat i njegove donekle kompromitirane održive turističke razvojne mogućnosti. Pročitajte, doista zanimljivo štivo ...


NEW! COASTAL ECOLOGIES: DESTINATION CROATIA


Dugi Rat example


Author: Saša Žanko
Source: Berlage Institute, Rotterdam, Netherland


dugi ratResponding to the conditions in which architecture and urban practise in Croatia demonstrate its incapacity to act under the new conditions dictated by the neo-liberalism Berlage Institute launches the project Croatian Archipelago New Lighthouses(CANL).


Mediterranean as it could be

The project had an objective to introduce a strategy the coastal development capable to articulate concepts of new urban spaces in the times of social transition, anticipating the potentials of participating processes in urban management.

Seven paradigmatic examples located from Northern to Southern Adriatic presented different strategies of interventions imagining Croatia as Mediterranean as it could be.

    
Dugi Rat example

Probably the most obvious choice, considering the transitional context of Croatia is the example of small village Dugi Rat in the middle Adriatic, where the local community for decades is trying to find a solution for the reconstruction of abandoned heavily polluted industrial complex situated in the most attractive natural area.

kompleks tvornice u Dugom Ratu

How architecture and urban design can participate in transitional processes and how much they can affect those processes – was the focus of the research undertaken under the umbrella of CANL project at the location of Dugi Rat.

Dugi Rat looks like the ideal laboratory for testing different scenarios and valuating them in relation to economic, ecological and social contexts.

In fact, the potential of architecture lies in the possibility to show a vision of development that can motivate imaginations of the political or economic kind.
 

dugi rat - tvornica


 Pilot project
for the abounded factory in Dugi rat illustrate two substantial weaknesses of the Croatian coastal development policy that found itself under the first blow of the neoliberal economy and real estate market.

It epitomizes all the environmental stigmas of the Croatian industrial age and witness the main weaknesses of the insufficiency of the system to  react with appropriate approach to territorial and spatial regulation in the planning of space which is rapidly being privatized, frequently changing its ownership structure, and involving more and more actors along with theirs particular interest.

In the inception period of the CANL project development, in year 2004, specific site of Dugi Rat was burdened with all the complexities of the space management in transitional Croatia.

stara tvornica


Factory
that was for more then 50 years main provider of employment for the whole region proclaimed a bankruptcy in 1995 leaving behind unclear and unsolved ownership situation.

Since that moment local authorities were captured in a loop of unsuccessful attempts to realize area’s potentials for further development and ensure the desperate need for the creation of employment.

Alongside with the appearance of numerous foreign investments in the newly liberated Croatian market, the peninsula of Dugi Rat records a series of potential buyers, demonstrating great speculative value of the site.

Finally, in 2006, the buyer prepared to undertake the risks of the investment the development of property ambiguous in the terms of ownership appeared and the factory was sold to international investment fund Landmark property Management.   
   

Korenat Point Resort


Spatial setting of Dugi Rat evokes the rapid change of physical condition of the Croatian coast: in the densely urbanised narrow coastal strip of middle Adriatic pine trees crowns are exchanging with concrete blocks.

Powerful image of the landscape is formed in a relation between the two strong borders; on one side is the mountain of Kozjak which streams with a steep incline towards the seashore bordered  by the sand beaches of the extreme natural beauty.

Though territory is occupied by non ending linear growth of settlements whereas areas between the old villages and the coastline are encountering the process of rapid building and the space between the sea and the road is formed as the area of high density which ignores public services and infrastructure, tourism still recognize the value of landscape as an attraction.

Within the objectives of CANL project, Architectural office Ante Kuzmanic from Split develops a strategy named URBOTANSCAPE© which anticipates development of a tourist-urban leisure field incorporated in the contrast of nature and urbanization along the „Split-Riviera“.
 

urbotanoscape


Concept “mellows” or defines more precisely the urban planning rules in some parts, stressing and preserving the main concept rules: Respecting the industry matrix and its most valuable industry monuments; Providing a maximum of open public space in form of one huge botanical garden; Achieving well mixed population, disperse program mix, all over 24 hour activity.

Proposed model anticipate the uncertainties of the future programmes, whereas the network of streets and division of fields generate the potentials for the variations of urban tissue within open model matrix.

The density is determined by the relation between the horizontal botanical element and the dense urban structure revealing the inherited industrial character.

The program of the local quarter has to be able to function from within has been complemented with elements of great gravitational power (business, entertainment, culture etc.) of the regional level, avoiding the creation of an island of social exclusion caused by fragmented land speculation with little infrastructure investment beyond the immediate project area. 

urbotanoscape


Referring to the incapacity of the local municipality to stand up to the pressure of the development it has been exposed,  URBOTANSCAPE© argues that a model that will ensure that the revenues from the new economic activities would stay in a local community and not to be displaced to multinational funds, could be achieved with a precondition of existence of the political will of the state to actively involves in a management of the site.

On a first glance complicated ownership structure could be taken as an advantage since the owner of the every lot of the peninsula space is the state in some form (local government, county, state-owned company for real estate, companies in majority state ownership, etc.).

Prior to entering the real estate trade procedure government and municipality should agree on a concept which develops the site. Next step would be the preparation of the land (infrastructure, improvement, cleaning) to determine the real estate price.

The joint investment into infrastructure should be prepared and added to the price. Only after all those steps the borders of intervention of the new location according to the new plan could be determined and sale to the interested parties could start.

Instead of the route delineated by this action plan presented by URBOTANSCAPE© reality scenario undertook opposite direction in which state is instead of governing selling its territory.

resort

For the moment it is known that Landmark Property Management will build the high quality tourism resort – “Korenat Point Resort” – which includes Five star hotel and spa, 50 berth international marina, the Peninsula Club – members only Retail, leisure and entertainment facilities, offering to its guests “second homes under the warm climate”.

Is this a kind of autonomous tourism development that will create ghettoization and isolation, as proved in developed tourist countries that practise the model for longer period, instead of openness and dynamism, as argued by CANL and URBOTANSCAPE will be revealed in a very near future.

Slow down of the global market has big influence on the flow of foreign investment in Croatia, which are significantly reduced, causing  the structural changes within the Landmark Property group too and postponing the further development of the resort
 

kompleks tvornice u Dugom Ratu

For the moment only factory is demolished, but for the rest local population remains in a resignation and disbelief that positive change is ever going to happen. 

Apart from commercial slogans, detailed plans are not visible, and in legal spatial planning documents that are in the procedures, the issue of public programmes and interests of the local population is not high at the agenda. 

Municipality still see its chance to advocate the public interest only through its role of the (hypothetic) owner of the maritime property which is still in the property of state that, so far is not willing to transfer that right to the Municipality.

Local population of Dugi Rat live in a territory that appears to be more and more far away from them, a territory on which the “others”, the “outers”, or an “unknown transcendental force” is in control.

 

kompleks tvornice u Dugom Ratu

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